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C Programming

Why to Learn C Programming?

C programming language is a MUST for students and working professionals to become a great Software Engineer specially when they are working in Software Development Domain. I will list down some of the key advantages of learning C Programming:

  • Easy to learn
  • Structured language
  • It produces efficient programs
  • It can handle low-level activities
  • It can be compiled on a variety of computer platforms

Hello World using C Programming.

Just to give you a little excitement about C programming, I’m going to give you a small conventional C Programming Hello World program, You can try it using Demo link.Live Demo

#include <stdio.h>

int main() {
   /* my first program in C */
   printf("Hello, World! \n");
   
   return 0;
}

The Compiler for C

Your program’s source code is written in a source file and is human readable. It must be “compiled” into machine language in order for your CPU to run the program according to the instructions.

The compiler converts source code into fully functional programs. The GNU C/C++ compiler is the most widely used and freely available compiler; otherwise, if you have the appropriate operating systems, you can utilize compilers from HP or Solaris.

The sections below describe how to install the GNU C/C++ compiler on various operating systems. Because the GNU gcc compiler supports both C and C++ programming languages, we keep discussing them together.

Hello World Example

A C program basically consists of the following parts −

  • Preprocessor Commands
  • Functions
  • Variables
  • Statements & Expressions
  • Comments

Let us look at a simple code that would print the words “Hello World” −Live Demo

#include <stdio.h>

int main() {
   /* my first program in C */
   printf("Hello, World! \n");
   
   return 0;
}

Tokens in C

A C program consists of various tokens and a token is either a keyword, an identifier, a constant, a string literal, or a symbol. For example, the following C statement consists of five tokens −

printf("Hello, World! \n");

The individual tokens are −

printf
(
   "Hello, World! \n"
)
;

Semicolons

In a C program, the semicolon is a statement terminator. That is, each individual statement must be ended with a semicolon. It indicates the end of one logical entity.

Given below are two different statements −

printf("Hello, World! \n");
return 0;

Keywords

The following list shows the reserved words in C. These reserved words may not be used as constants or variables or any other identifier names.

autoelselongswitch
breakenumregistertypedef
caseexternreturnunion
charfloatshortunsigned
constforsignedvoid
continuegotosizeofvolatile
defaultifstaticwhile
dointstruct_Packed
double

Integer Types

The following table provides the details of standard integer types with their storage sizes and value ranges −

TypeStorage sizeValue range
char1 byte-128 to 127 or 0 to 255
unsigned char1 byte0 to 255
signed char1 byte-128 to 127
int2 or 4 bytes-32,768 to 32,767 or -2,147,483,648 to 2,147,483,647
unsigned int2 or 4 bytes0 to 65,535 or 0 to 4,294,967,295
short2 bytes-32,768 to 32,767
unsigned short2 bytes0 to 65,535
long8 bytes or (4bytes for 32 bit OS)-9223372036854775808 to 9223372036854775807
unsigned long8 bytes0 to 18446744073709551615

To get the exact size of a type or a variable on a particular platform, you can use the sizeof operator. The expressions sizeof(type) yields the storage size of the object or type in bytes. Given below is an example to get the size of various type on a machine using different constant defined in limits.h header file −Live Demo

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <limits.h>
#include <float.h>

int main(int argc, char** argv) {

    printf("CHAR_BIT    :   %d\n", CHAR_BIT);
    printf("CHAR_MAX    :   %d\n", CHAR_MAX);
    printf("CHAR_MIN    :   %d\n", CHAR_MIN);
    printf("INT_MAX     :   %d\n", INT_MAX);
    printf("INT_MIN     :   %d\n", INT_MIN);
    printf("LONG_MAX    :   %ld\n", (long) LONG_MAX);
    printf("LONG_MIN    :   %ld\n", (long) LONG_MIN);
    printf("SCHAR_MAX   :   %d\n", SCHAR_MAX);
    printf("SCHAR_MIN   :   %d\n", SCHAR_MIN);
    printf("SHRT_MAX    :   %d\n", SHRT_MAX);
    printf("SHRT_MIN    :   %d\n", SHRT_MIN);
    printf("UCHAR_MAX   :   %d\n", UCHAR_MAX);
    printf("UINT_MAX    :   %u\n", (unsigned int) UINT_MAX);
    printf("ULONG_MAX   :   %lu\n", (unsigned long) ULONG_MAX);
    printf("USHRT_MAX   :   %d\n", (unsigned short) USHRT_MAX);

    return 0;
}
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <limits.h>
#include <float.h>

int main(int argc, char** argv) {

    printf("Storage size for float : %d \n", sizeof(float));
    printf("FLT_MAX     :   %g\n", (float) FLT_MAX);
    printf("FLT_MIN     :   %g\n", (float) FLT_MIN);
    printf("-FLT_MAX    :   %g\n", (float) -FLT_MAX);
    printf("-FLT_MIN    :   %g\n", (float) -FLT_MIN);
    printf("DBL_MAX     :   %g\n", (double) DBL_MAX);
    printf("DBL_MIN     :   %g\n", (double) DBL_MIN);
    printf("-DBL_MAX     :  %g\n", (double) -DBL_MAX);
    printf("Precision value: %d\n", FLT_DIG );

    return 0;
}

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